YUUUN

金沢ゆべし「柚雲」の物語

The Story of “Yu-un” Kanazawa Yubeshi

金沢学院大学大学院教授の陶智子先生が古文書の翻訳と製造監修を行い、弊社四代目の中浦政克とともに江戸時代の柚餅子を再現した物語です。「柚雲」をはじめとする金沢ゆべしを次代に継承することを弊社の使命としてまいりたく存じます。

This is the story of the recreation of yubeshi, as it was made during the Edo era, by Masakatsu Nakaura, the fourth-generation owner of Yubeshi Souhonke Nakauraya. He was aided by translations into modern Japanese and production supervision performed by Professor Tomoko Sue of Kanazawa Gakuin Graduate School. We believe, however, that it is our mission to continue to bring Kanazawa yubeshi, including Yu-un, from its origins in the past to the generations to come.


 

「柚雲」 Yu-un

一、江戸時代の柚餅子を再現する

I. Recreating the Yubeshi of the Edo Era

江戸時代、加賀藩前田家のお殿様が召し上がっていた柚餅子を再現する。そんな夢のようなことを始めたのは、平成二十年の秋の終わりでした。

The goal: to recreate the yubeshi eaten by the lord of the Maeda Clan of the Kaga Domain, hundreds of years ago. What seemed at first like a dream was finally completed in the autumn of 2008.

前田家に仕えた料理人舟木伝内とその息子長左衛門安信が書き残した膨大な料理書。そして、舟木家の料理人が活躍をした約百年後、幕末に前田家に仕えた料理人小島為善。彼らの書き残した料理書には、何種類もの柚餅子の作り方が記されています。今回の再現のもとになったレシピは、加賀藩十代藩主前田重教(しげみち・一七四一~一七八六)の御膳方を務め、十一代藩主治脩(はるなが・一七四五~一八一〇)の治世に藩の料理人の第一の地位である御料理頭になった舟木長左衛門安信が著した『包厨調飪規矩』と『料理の栞』に記載されています。

Funaki Dennai, the chef who served the Maeda Clan, and his son Yasunobu, left behind a vast collection of written recipes. A century later, at the end of Japan’s feudal era, Kojima Tameyoshi, who served as the chef for the Maeda Clan, also wrote about a variety of recipes for yubeshi. The recipe used as the basis for this recreation was that of Funaki Yasunobu, the top chef who served under the tenth and eleventh lords of the Maeda Clan in the second half of the 18th century, as listed in his collections of writings on cooking.

その中で、柚子の形のままにつくる丸柚餅子は江戸時代の料理書には「柚厭」と名付けられています。この「柚厭」の製法を簡単に紹介しましょう。

Within these writings, there was a recipe from the Edo era for maru-yubeshi made inside of a whole yuzu fruit, named “Yu-en.” The basic recipe was as follows:

①柚子の形のままに果肉を丁寧にくり抜いた皮を蒸す。

1. Leaving the outside of the yuzu as intact as possible, carefully remove the flesh inside of the fruits, then steam the rinds.

②粗い道明寺粉を酒を入れた水でひたひたに漬けて一晩ふやかす。

2. Put coarse domyoji-ko into water that has sake added to it, and let soak overnight.

③この道明寺粉に砂糖と柚子の果肉を合わせ柚子釜に八分目ほど詰め、藁を敷いた蒸籠で二十分間ほど蒸す。蒸すと道明寺粉は柚子釜いっぱいに吹き上がる。

3. Combine the rehydrated domyoji-ko with sugar and the yuzu flesh, then fill the yuzu rinds about 80% full with the mixture. Place in a steamer lined with straw and steam for about 20 minutes. When steamed, the domyoji-ko granules will swell to fill the yuzu rinds.

④これを一日冷まし、もう一度十五分ほど蒸す。この時、たまり醤油をつけたヘラで柚子釜の口をこそげ、胡桃を二,三個入れる。

4. Let rest for a day to cool, then steam again for about 15 minutes. This time, scrape the top openings of the yuzu rinds with a spatula that has been coated with extra-strong tamari soy sauce, and add two or three walnuts to each.

⑤これを二、三日寝かせ、板で押しをして形を整え、ひとつずつ和紙に包んで風通しの良いところで乾燥させる。

5. Let rest for two to three days, then press with a board to even out the shape. Wrap each one in washi paper and place in an area with good ventilation to dry.

この「柚厭」は、現代の丸柚餅子と異なり、道明寺粉を用います。道明寺粉は糒(ほしい)のことですが、河内国にある道明寺という寺の付近で近世以来良質の糒が作られたことから、この糒を道明寺と通称するようになりました。この道明寺は菅原道真と縁の深い寺なのです。

Unlike today’s maru-yubeshi, this older recipe for Yu-en calls for domyoji-ko. Domyoji-ko (steamed and dried mochi rice pounded into granules, or hoshii) was named for the fact that, since the late middle ages, high-quality hoshii has been made near Domyoji Temple in Kawachi Province. Domyoji Temple, incidentally, has deep ties with the great figure Sugawara no Michizane.

このように、江戸時代の料理書の通りに、実に手間のかかる方法で作られた丸柚餅子がこの「柚雲」です。

It requires a great deal of time and effort to make a Yu-un, the maru-yubeshi of the Edo era, in the same way that it would have been made back then.

柚子は金沢市内で収穫された一級品のみを厳選して用いています。胡桃も能登産、たまり醤油は能登産の大豆と能登産の塩を使って仕込まれた特製醤油です。

Only the very finest yuzu fruits harvested within the city of Kanazawa are used to make these. The walnuts used are grown in the Noto peninsula of Ishikawa Prefecture, and the tamari soy sauce is specially made with both soybeans and salt from Noto, as well.

二、「柚雲」の「雲」

II. The “Un” in the Modern “Yu-un”

「柚雲」「雲」は何を表しているでしょうか?これには少し説明が必要ですね。

The name “Yu-un” consists of the “yu” in “yuzu” and “un,” which literally means “cloud.” What, exactly, is the name supposed to mean, though?

舟木家の人々や小島為善が書き残した料理文書には「松雲院様」という記述が見られます。例えば「松雲院様がお好みになられた」というような記述です。

The writings on cooking left by the Funaki family and Kojima Tameyoshi sometimes make reference to one “Lord Shoun-in,” in passages stating things such as “Lord Shoun-in quite enjoyed this.”

この「松雲院様」とは、前田家五代藩主綱紀(寛永二十年〔一六四三〕~享保九年〔一七二四〕)の法名なのです。綱紀は藩内に学問・文芸を奨励し、工芸の標本や古書を編纂した「百工比照」で知られるだけでなく、現在加賀宝生として知られる能楽を導入しました。加賀藩では藩祖利家、二代利長、三代利常と並び称される存在です。現在の石川県に根付く工芸の源を築いたとも言える大切な藩主なのです。父光高が早世したためわずか三歳で藩主となり、治世は八十年におよびました。元禄二年(一六八九)、五代将軍綱吉から前田家が御三家に準ずる待遇を与えられたのも綱紀の治世のことでした。

This “Shoun-in” was the posthumous name of the fifth feudal lord of the Maeda Clan, Tsunanori (1643–1724). Tsunanori strove to promote education and literature, and famously compiled a collection of craftwork specimens and old writings from throughout Japan, known as the Hyakko Hisho (“Comparison of 100 crafts”). In addition, he also introduced a form of Noh play known today as Kaga Hosho. Tsunanori is considered to be of the same degree of significance within the history of the Kaga Domain as Maeda Toshiie, the founder of Kaga Domain, the second lord, Toshinaga, and the third lord, Toshitsune. It could be said that the culture of Ishikawa Prefecture as a home for craftwork has its roots in Tsunanori’s achievements. Tsunanori’s father, Mitsutaka, died young, when Tsunanori was just three years old; from that point on, Tsunanori spent nearly all of his eighty years as a ruler. In 1689, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, the fifth shogun, bestowed the Maeda Clan with treatment akin to that of the three main families of the Tokugawa Clan, due to Tsunanori’s rule.

料理書の柚餅子の項には、直接「松雲院様」の表記はありません。が、料理書の他の記述から、後の藩主が五代藩主の好みの料理を有り難く食したであろうことは想像に難くありません。

In the entries for yubeshi in the recipe books themselves, there is no direct mention of “Lord Shoun-in.” However, based on other accounts, it is not difficult to speculate that later lords of the Kaga Domain gratefully enjoyed the same cooking that Tsunanori had himself enjoyed.

そして、今回の再現のレシピを書き残した舟木長左衛門安信が御膳方を務めた十代藩主重教の法名も「泰雲院」と「雲」の文字があります。重教も加賀狂言など、能狂言の普及に努めたことが知られています。

The recipe recreated here was recorded by Funaki Yasunobu, who served as chef under the tenth lord of the Kaga Domain, Shigemichi. Shigemichi’s posthumous name, “Taiun-in,” contained the same “un” (“cloud”) as “Shoun-in.” Shigemichi was himself well known for encouraging the popularization of Noh and Kyogen plays, such as Kaga Kyogen.

そこで、「松雲院」と「泰雲院」の「雲」の文字をいただくことにしたのです。

In honor of the area’s history, we named our Kanazawa yubeshi “Yu-un,” after the “un,” or “cloud,” of the posthumous names Shoun-in and Taiun-in.

道明寺粉を用いた柚餅子の製法は元禄時代の他の料理書に既に見られるものです。が、そこでは調味料は醬油ではなく味噌でした。調味料に醬油を、そして砂糖を多く用いることも「柚雲」と名付けた柚餅子の製法以前の料理書には記述がありません。前田家の料理人が、お殿様のために工夫を凝らして作り上げた特別な柚餅子と言えましょう。

Recipe books show that by the late 1600s, there were already yubeshi recipes that used domyoji-ko; these recipes, however, used miso instead of soy sauce as an ingredient. Yubeshi made with soy sauce and a greater amount of sugar, on the other hand, are nowhere to be found in records before Yu-un yubeshi. It could be said that this was the chef’s specially-made yubeshi, meant just for these feudal lords.

三、「柚雲」の特徴

III. Characteristics of Yu-un

見た目とは異なる、新鮮な風味が「柚雲」の秀逸なるところです。果肉がたくさん入っていることが味のポイントなのですね。現代の丸柚餅子とは異なり、道明寺粉の食感や果肉の酸味が楽しめます。切ると、柚子の良い香りが広がり、口に運ぶとそのフルーティであることに驚かれることでしょう。保存食として作られているのに、生菓子に近いみずみずしさが特徴です。

The most striking aspect of each Yu-un is the fresh flavor belied by its appearance: you can taste all of the fresh yuzu used to make each one. Unlike other modern maru-yubeshi, Yu-un is made the old-fashioned way, allowing you to enjoy the texture of the domyoji-ko and the tartness of the yuzu. As soon as you cut into it, the light citrus fragrance of yuzu fills the air; one taste and you’ll be shocked at the deliciously fruity flavor. And despite the fact that yubeshi is designed to keep for years, Yu-un has a distinct freshness to it more akin to soft, moist namagashi Japanese unbaked sweets.

とても江戸時代の製法で再現したものとは思えなかったというのが、私が初めていただいたときの素直な感想です。江戸時代の保存技術の優れていることに驚かされるばかりです。

When I first tried one, I honestly couldn’t believe it was a recreation of the same preparation techniques used hundreds of years ago during the Edo era. I was shocked at the effectiveness of the food preservation techniques of the time.

江戸時代、加賀藩前田家のお殿様が食べていた「柚厭」を再現した果実味豊かな丸柚餅子「柚雲」は、古くて新しい菓子なのです。

Today’s Yu-un, a faithful recreation of the deliciously fruity yu-en eaten by the Maeda Clan, lords of the Kaga Domain, hundreds of years ago, is a distinctly Japanese sweet that is old, yet new.

 

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